To understand how vinyl records work is to understand a very complex analogue process that was refined over years to provide us with a very special experience of enjoying music in our homes as it was intended by the recording artists. That's kind of monumental. After all, the emotional experience of enjoying music is something that can enhance our lives in a significant way.
To skim over the basics, the stylus sits in the record groove which is rotating at 33 and a third revolutions per minute (RPM) for an LP and as the record rotates it allows the stylus to ride the grooves and reproduce the music within. The reproduction is done via a mechanical to electrical transfer and the magic of analogue happens. This electrical signal is transferred to the amplifier and reproduced by the speakers. Obviously, this is an over-simplication as the quality of the equipment that is reproducing this sound makes a huge difference to how the transfer of information occurs and what the final product sounds like.
Whatever the case, from the cartridge and stylus combination, to the isolation of the turntable from noise and vibration within the design, it is important to find a great piece of vinyl playing kit that helps you discover the nirvana of playing records.